2 edition of Negotiation in decentralization found in the catalog.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
|Statement||Ming Yang, Fan Yang|
|Series||Green energy and technology, Green energy and technology|
|Contributions||Yang, Fan, 1986-|
|LC Classifications||HC79.P55 Y36 2012|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||xix, 246 p. :|
|Number of Pages||246|
|ISBN 10||9781447140566, 9781447140573|
|LC Control Number||2012936964|
All of the companies we studied are large. In a highly decentralized company, where the product lines range from aerospace to electronics to automotive parts, each business unit reaches entirely different markets, uses different base technologies, and pursues different product-introduction rates. Investigations regarding differences in negotiation style have yielded contradictory results; some indicate gender differences, some show none. Advocates of political decentralization assume that decisions made with greater participation will be better informed and more relevant to diverse interests in society than those made only by national political authorities. Peter Vandergeest is associate professor of sociology at York University in Canada. At the macro levelan important concern has been that decentralization may make stabilization policies more difficult to implement, and indeed, may itself lead to destabilizing levels and composition of overall public expenditures and public debt.
When confronted with another's unethical behavior, negotiators may ignore it, respond in kind, point out the unethical behavior, or try to discuss the other's reasons for resorting to unethical tactics. In distributive win-lose, competitive bargaining, each party tries to secure the most benefit for themselves, without regard for the other side's outcome. In Africa, the spread of multi-party political systems is creating demand for more local voice in decision making. But the development of new computer applications is handled in a decentralized fashion, following priorities and budgets set by the users. Drawing distinctions between these various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the need for coordination among them.
An audience may consist of team members, constituents or by-standers. Leverage refers to the use of power to gain a temporary advantage over the other party. Centralizing the IS staff has other advantages. Until recently, applications for new policies had to cross 20 separate desks—some of them several times—and an unknown number of computer systems. Creating clear career paths in a central IS staff offers the professional opportunities likely to attract high-quality people.
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Second, the authors point out the ways in which formal universalist policies can fall short at the implementation level in the context of limited and unequally distributed resources.
The advantage of arbitration is a speedy and a clear-cut resolution. Decentralization can help cut complex bureaucratic procedures and it can increase government officials' sensitivity to local conditions and needs.
There are three factors driving this trend toward recentralization: 1.
Each party's goal is to close a deal as near to the other's resistance point as possible. This allows each business unit to negotiate prices and terms with suppliers on the strength of the entire corporate relationship. Often, seemingly distributive situations may be reframed to permit integrative solutions.
It can merely shift responsibilities from central government officials in the capital city to those working in regions, provinces or districts, or it can create strong field administration or local administrative capacity under the supervision of central government ministries. Finally, centralized operations are more likely to use the newest productivity tools for data processing.
The editors draw on evidence presented in the book to argue that the politics of decentralization is best understood as the terrain of negotiation and conflict. Some jurisdictions are better endowed with resources than others, perhaps because of size or location. In the extreme, decentralization represents a desperate attempt to keep the country together in the face of these pressures by granting more autonomy to all localities or by forging "asymmetrical federations.
Some recruit representatives from user departments, software vendors, or high-powered consultancies. Privatization can range in scope from leaving the provision of goods and services entirely to the free operation of the market to "public-private partnerships" in which government and the private sector cooperate to provide services or infrastructure.
Fiscal decentralization can take many forms, including a self-financing or cost recovery through user charges, b co-financing or co-production arrangements through which the users participate in providing services and infrastructure through monetary or labor contributions; c expansion of local revenues through property or sales taxes, or indirect charges; d intergovernmental transfers that shift general revenues from taxes collected by the central government to local governments for general or specific uses; and e authorization of municipal borrowing and the mobilization of either national or local government resources through loan guarantees.
Thirteen chapters are presented in four parts. A third divide, found in Cuba as in most countries, is the distance between the Cuban state and its people embodied in top- down policies and limited opportunities for bottom-up input.
Negotiation Basics The negotiation situation is characterized by two or more interdependent parties who have a conflict of interest, and who choose to address that conflict by striving to reach an agreement through a process of mutual adjustment of each party's demands and concessions.
Readers of this book will learn to be wary of centralizing forces that use donor-funded decentralization to stave off pressure for genuine democratization, and to identify opportunities to promote institutions that could be open to capture by democratic groups.
Such techniques make it possible for companies to capture the enormous benefits of IS centralization without losing the responsiveness to user needs that was the driving force behind decentralization. The political objectives to increase political responsiveness and participation at the local level can coincide with the economic objectives of better decisions about the use of public resources and increased willingness to pay for local services.
The Harvard-linked authors who sit outside Cuba face a different set of incentives and constraints, and it shows. Every new crop of college recruits first completes a series of formal courses on productivity tools and applications-development standards used throughout the corporation, then moves through an entry-level tour in various business units.
It aims to provide a methodology and a tool that can resolve difficult negotiation issues and change a loss-loss situation to a win-win situation for key players in a decentralized system, including government policymakers, energy producers, and environment conservationists.
The degree of centralization and decentralization will depend upon the amount of authority delegated to the lowest level. See our disclaimer This book offers research on Chinese power sector reform negotiations in the past 30 years, discussing conflicts between power groups and the national government over demand and supply management, capital investment, energy prices, and CO2 emission mitigation.
It is this type of administrative decentralization that underlies most political decentralization.Get this from a library! Negotiation in decentralization: case study of China's carbon trading in the power sector. [Ming Yang; Fan Yang]. Negotiation In Decentralization: Case Study Of China's Carbon Trading In The Power Sector discusses research carried out on negotiation issues in China regarding Chinese power sector reform over the past 30 years.
Results show that conflicts exist between power groups and the national government, and that the most current negotiation topics in. Nov 13, · And within Latin America, Argentina is a specifically relevant case since it has strong unions and particularly high collective bargaining coverage rates despite decentralization reforms.
This is necessary to examine the effects of work practices resulting from collective bargaining agreements on. decentralization just in the donor domain alone (e.g.
project documents, evaluations and reviews, etc.). When decentralization is broadened to incorporate such concepts as devolution, alternative services delivery, privatization and so on, then the resource base on the subject would undoubtedly be massive.
Political, administrative, fiscal and market decentralization can also appear in different forms and combinations across countries, within countries and even within sectors. Political Decentralization. Political decentralization aims to give citizens or their elected representatives more power in public decision-making.
PON – Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School - atlasbowling.com Helping Decentralized Organizations Negotiate More Effectively By PON Staff — on April 8th, / Daily, Negotiation Skills.