5 edition of Cardiac mechanotransduction found in the catalog.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
|Statement||Matti Weckström, Pasi Tavi, [eds.].|
|Series||Medical intelligence unit, Medical intelligence unit (Unnumbered : 2003)|
|Contributions||Weckström, Matti., Tavi, Pasi.|
|LC Classifications||QP113.2 .C3665 2007|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||147 p. :|
|Number of Pages||147|
|LC Control Number||2007296444|
Chondrocyte surface mechano-receptors include CD44, annexin V and integrins. Stem cell based tissue therapies the current state of research attempt to differentiate pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem cells or the less controversial mesenchymal stem cells found in bone marrow by both adding known chemical factors such as cytokines and growth factors in addition to providing 'mechanically appropriate' environments for what types of tissue are being attempted. Extracellular changes in stiffness, tension or other mechanical stimuli are perceived by integrin clusters whose morphological changes or distribution recruit FAK. Free shipping for individuals worldwide Usually dispatched within 3 to 5 business days.
The protein contains different interacting domains LIM, SH2, SH3 and LD which confer paxillin high-affinity binding properties to bring together structural and signaling partners Kadrmas and Beckerle, This structure enhances contractile function of the heart, as the cell generates contractile force along the axis of the sarcomeric actin and perpendicular to the axis of the sarcomere Z-line, which together compose the myofibril. Focal adhesions are dynamically built following the assembly of transmembrane proteins deputed to physically interact with components of ECM, namely fibronectin, vitronectin, collagens, laminins, and named integrins. Extracellular changes in stiffness, tension or other mechanical stimuli are perceived by integrin clusters whose morphological changes or distribution recruit FAK.
Local changes in ECM composition and mechanics are driven by a feed forward interplay between the cell and the matrix itself, with the first depositing ECM proteins that in turn will impact on the surrounding cells. View this table:. Bibcode : BpJ Adult myocytes have a characteristic rectangular structure that does not change even when extracted from the whole heart.
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These two mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and could function cooperatively. When the basilar membrane is driven upward, shear between the hair cells and the tectorial membrane deflects hair bundles in the excitatory direction, toward their tall edge. Similar effects of altered ECM mechanics on the function of different cell types have been recently demonstrated Engler et al.
Sham; 2. Interestingly, FAK phosphorylation on a specific site, tyrosineis sensitive to the tethering of integrins to a rigid substratum, whereas clustering alone regulates phosphorylation of other sites In all of the in vitro systems, forces are by definition transmitted through cell contacts with the substratum, thereby implicating integrins in mechanotransduction.
As such, these changes occur regularly during tissue development and are a hallmark of the pathologies of aging. The mechanosensing properties of paxillin lie in its ability to bind activated vinculin and paxillin LD motif—binding protein actopaxin through the LD domain, thus stabilizing FA-cytoskeleton interaction.
A comparable effect has been demonstrated for fibronectin, providing one mechanism for force-dependent matrix assembly Cytoskeletal Tension as Second Messenger for Mechanical Signals The propagation of extracellular and cell-generated forces is ensured by the regulation of cytoskeleton tension Discher, Changes in ECM composition and mechanics are encountered during the progression of all degenerative diseases as the result of aging or as a compensatory attempt of the tissue to preserve its function Kim et al.
In addition, kinases e. Interestingly, in a compendium of studies, Roca-Cusachs et al. Current evidence makes a strong case for a bidirectional relationship between integrin-mediated adhesion and mechanical forces. Paxillin is also credited of having a structural function at the adhesion sites while shuttling to cell nucleus in response to mechanical stress.
Knowledge of the mechanisms which underlie these processes is necessary for understanding of the normal functioning of different organs and tissues and allows to predict changes, which arise due to alterations of their environment.
We are furthermore interested in interrogating undiscovered mutations, using mutagenesis techniques to create and test all possible mutations in a number of cardiac-disease associated genes.
Its activation by autophosphorylation is considered the trigger to intracellular mechanotransduction, by activating downstream mechanotransducers within the cytoplasm Lachowski et al.
Candidates for chondrocyte mechanoreceptors include stretch-activated ion channels SAC the hyaluronan receptor CD44annexin V a collagen type II receptor and integrin receptors of which there exist several types on chondrocytes.
Our goal is to review what is known about integrins in mechanotransduction. Externally applied strain also influences cell growth and survival 439 Based on their structural organization, assembly and FA connectivity, SFs have been grouped in different specialized subtypes Small et al.
Introduction The correct regulation of cell function in vivo requires the integration of numerous biological and mechanical signals arising from the surrounding cells and the extracellular matrix ECM.
Journal of Applied Physiology. Changes in ECM compliance are now considered of prognostic value for solid tumors Calvo et al.
Dorsal SFs and transverse arcs, generated by de novo polymerization, directly interact among them by creating a dynamical network from which ventral SFs can be formed Hotulainen and Lappalainen, Altogether, these events set the physiological force range defining the mechanical stability of cell—matrix adhesions Neumann and Gottschalk, ; Yao et al.
For the first time mechanosensitivity and mechanotransduction in blood cells are discussed. The interplay between the external and internal mechanical state of cells is defined by tensional homeostasis, a basal equilibrium stress state in which cells maintain defined levels of tension with their surroundings, despite mechanical perturbations Brown et al.
Using the integrin-linked mechanotransduction pathway as an example being one of the better studied pathwaysit has been shown to mediate chondrocyte adhesion to cartilage surfaces,  mediate survival signaling  and regulate matrix production and degradation.Mar 26, · Our goal is to review what is known about integrins in mechanotransduction.
We will consider formation of normal adhesions as a mechanically sensitive system, the responses of cells to externally applied strains, and the responses of cell to fluid flow.
Living cells are constantly exposed to mechanical stimuli arising from the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM) or from neighboring cells. The intracellular molecular processes through which such physical cues are transformed into a biological response are collectively dubbed as mechanotransduction and are of fundamental importance to help the cell timely adapt to the continuous dynamic Cited by: Cardiac mechanotransduction signalling.
The cardiac hypertrophic response is often categorized into physiological or pathological hypertrophy. Physiological hypertrophy, which arises as the consequence of aerobic exercise or pregnancy, is characterized by the addition of sarcomeres in series (to lengthen the cell) and in parallel (to increase.
Mechanotransduction in the heart not only affects the beat-to-beat regulation of cardiac performance, but also profoundly affects the growth, differentiation, and survival of the cellular. The interaction between cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts has been shown to be critically involved in the regulation of cardiac mechanotransduction (7,8).
In the following chapter, the mechanosensitive components of the myocardium linked to acute and chronic. mechanotransduction, both structurally and biochemically, with important implications in physiology and disease.
Consequently, the role of the nucleus in mechanotransduction includes the modulation of biochemical signals arriving at the nucleus.
For instance, the MAPK pathway has been shown to be directly involved in cellular mechanotransduction.